As well as lifestyle changes mentioned above, drugs such as hydrochlorothiazide are also occasionally used to help prevent calcium stones. These drugs decrease the amount of calcium released by the kidneys into the urine. Uric acid stones are the only stones that can be dissolved. This is difficult but is possible by taking medicine to make the urine less acidic (the pH must be over 6.5) and taking a large amount of fluids. Once they are dissolved, fluids alone can prevent more stones.
To prevent cystine stones, it is necessary to drink enough water each day to dilute the concentration of cystine that escapes into the urine, which may be difficult. More than four litres of water may be needed every 24 hours, and a third of that must be drunk during the night. Various medicines are used at times also.
For struvite stone(s) that have been totally removed, the first line of prevention is to keep the urine free of the bacteria that can caused infection. Your urine will be tested regularly to be sure that no bacteria are present. People with hyperparathyroidism sometimes develop calcium stones. Treatment in these cases is usually surgery to remove the parathyroid glands (located in the neck). In most cases, only one of the glands is enlarged. Removing the glands cures the patient’s problem with hyperparathyroidism and with kidney stones as well.